Francisco Goya (1746-1828) was a famous Spanish artist that painted religious scenes, portraits of noble people and royalty and was quite important and successful in his prime. He also made prints, paintings, and drawings of disturbing and anxiety-provoking subjects, such as death, madness, witchcraft, and others.
In his early years, Goya was a successful artist and painted tapestries and portraits for royalty. He became the court painter for King Charles IV. In 1793, at the age of 47, Goya lost his hearing due to an unknown illness. This had a detrimental effect on his mental health. Further cultural decline of Spain and political turmoil before and during the reign of King Ferdinand VII, as well as witnessing brutalities during the war with Napoleon contributed to Goya’s declining mental health. Although he continued to paint for the rich and noble people of Spain, his personal art turned to dark and disturbing subjects. He created a series of etchings called “Los Caprichos” that reveal the tragic, comic, and disturbing elements of culture at that time (one of the most famous ones is “The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters”).
At the age of 75, Goya lived in the outskirts of Madrid. His physical and mental health continued to decline. During this time, he painted 14 murals on the walls(!) of his house. These paintings were not meant to be seen by anyone, Goya painted them for himself and never mentioned them to anyone. This group of paintings is now referred to as “Black Paintings.” Each mural depicts a disturbing element of human nature, monsters, and horrors. Fifty years after Goya’s death, the murals were transferred to canvasses, restored, and moved to a museum.
This palette is likely the last one Goya used to create his Black Paintings. There are two versions of this palette: one with original pigments - Lead Tin White and Cinnabar and one with their modern non-toxic substitutes - White Titanium and Vermillion.